From Eric Digests
: Resources for Teaching and Learning about Probability and Statistics.
- Very little probability and statistics have been taught in our schools (Barnett 1988; Shaughnessy 1992).
- Student misconceptions and understanding. Conditional probability and the notion of independent events are reported as particularly difficult concepts for students to grasp (Falk 1988).
- Student beliefs and attitudes. Statistics courses are some of the most rigorous and anxiety evoking for college students. Because of this, researchers have investigated techniques that may help to reduce anxiety and change negative attitudes experienced by students taking such courses (Sgoutas-Emch & Johnson 1998).
0Basic Recommendations for Teaching
- Teachers must become familiar with students' preexisting conceptions related to probability and statistics before they try to teach the concepts.
- Teachers must use real world examples to help students understand concepts.
- Hands-on materials must be used in teaching and learning probability and statistics.
- Computer use of simulations enables students to investigate more realistic situations than were previously possible. This strategy is strongly supported by numerous studies.
- Mathematica : This page includes "Monte Carlo Approximation of Pi," "The Mystery of the Three Cards," "The Birthday Problem," "The Gambling Boundary Problem," and others.
- Probability Web : Contains a collection of pages with the following headings: Probability links, Abstracts, Listservers, Newsgroups, People, Jobs, Journals, Software, Books, Conferences, Publishers and Miscellaneous.
- Introductory Probability
- Fun with Probability : Website for a cooperative classroom project for grades K- 9.
- Three Door Puzzle
- Swarthmore Classroom Material : Provides unit course materials and lesson plans, problems and puzzles, and reference materials.
- Swarthmore Probability Software : Contains publicly available software and online publishers for probability and statistics.
- Probability and Statistics : Provides fun and challenging activities for students.
- Susan Holmes